The algorithm of operation of infrared heaters differs significantly from the principle of operation of convection devices. They convert electrical energy into thermal energy thanks to a heating element located inside the structure.
The principle of operation of infrared heaters
Infrared waves are classified into three types:
- Shortwave. Range 0.75-15.00 µm. By the principle of propagation, waves are similar to rays of light.
- Medium wave. 15-100 microns. This type of wave is optimal for home heating.
- Longwave. 100-350 microns. They function similarly to radio waves.
The heating element radiates heat energy absorbed by surrounding objects. Then they give their heat to the room.
For the manufacture of heaters, the following materials are used:
- Flamentine (a special alloy of a dozen metals);
- carbon fiber enclosed in a vacuum;
- a tungsten filament enclosed in a vacuum or an inert gas;
- special plates made of non-metallic alloy, the surface of which is covered with mica.
Types and characteristics of infrared heaters
Infrared heaters are divided into the following types:
- Gas. The piezo component ensures the operation of the device; when ignited, air and propane interact. Gas units are used to heat rooms with an area of 25 square meters, they are also called industrial.
- Diesel. Thanks to the power supply, the electrodes are heated, then the pump is turned on and the fan is started, which supplies the thermal mixture to the burner. The mixture, when in contact with air, begins to burn, after which infrared rays are obtained.
- Electrical. The beams are obtained by heating the filament base coil to 900 degrees Celsius. At the base of the heater is a gas cylinder, it is connected to the burner with a hose.
Tubular heating elements, carbon spirals, film panels or halogen lamps act as a heating element.
- water models used in rooms with ceilings above 5 meters. Water from the heating system is used as a heat carrier.
Infrared heating equipment is divided into low and high temperature heaters.
The first give out up to 50 degrees, are used in residential premises.
The latter can heat up to 400 degrees, they are used in very large rooms. In this case, it is important that the ceiling height is more than 3 meters, and there is also a high risk of burns for people.
The area of heating by an infrared unit directly depends on the power. Typically, devices are attached to a wall or ceiling so that warm flows are evenly distributed around the entire perimeter of the heated room.
Some models are equipped with a display on which you can observe all the necessary parameters.
The most popular are infrared heaters with a medium wave range, they are divided into types:
- Quartz. The design includes a quartz tube with a vacuum, inside of which there is a tungsten filament. There are also models that consist of a monolithic slab made of natural quartz sand.
- Halogen. The vacuum tube is filled with an inert gas.
- Carbon. The vacuum tube contains carbon fiber.
All three types can heat up to 700 degrees, and the additional rotation function allows you to dissipate heat most evenly. It is better not to place such devices near people.
Functions and features
- Built-in humidifier. Useful if you have dry indoor air.
- Fan. Allows you to direct the wind in any direction.
- dust filter. The device will accumulate dust inside, the air will become cleaner.
- Disinfector. Infrared rays are able to kill bacteria and mold. The device is useful for disinfection of wet rooms.
- Ionizer. Ionization has a healing effect, as the air is saturated with negative ions.
- Built-in thermostat. It will save electricity, as it has a standby mode in which the heater does not heat. There are models with a temperature controller.
- Auto-off function if the device is accidentally dropped. This option is for security reasons.
The package includes a device mount and instructions for use. Sometimes additional parts may be needed for installation.
Accessories and their features
- Telescopic tripod. Raises the device to a certain height.
- Remote control to change power. The best option for a model with a timer.
- Protective grille. Provides additional safety when foreign objects get on the heating elements.
- Swivel bracket. Allows you to direct the equipment in the right direction.
- Overheat protection. The device is equipped with a special sensor that is triggered when a certain temperature is reached.
Frost protection for infrared heaters is not provided, since at low temperatures these devices will maintain their working condition.
- Moisture protection. Allows the use of heaters in swimming pools, saunas and other areas with high humidity.
Advantages of infrared heaters
- Heat is distributed evenly throughout the room, the temperature difference in the lower and upper parts of the room is small. Optimum temperature is achieved at low energy costs.
- When using infrared equipment, the air remains fresh, the oxygen content does not decrease.
- The air in the heated room does not dry out, on the contrary, the humidity normalizes.
- Infrared appliances heat up a room four times faster than standard convection heaters.
- Suitable for rooms with a large area, especially for shops and cafes, where the doors are constantly open. The device acts pointwise, directing its rays at people and objects, keeping warm for a long time.
- Silent operation of the equipment.
- Aesthetic appearance.
- Ease of installation will allow you to quickly install the unit in the right place.
- Infrared models have a long service life.
- The operation of the heater will not affect the operation of other ventilation devices in the same room.
- The device is safe for people and animals.
- The device has a high efficiency.
- Infrared rays can prevent mold, condensation and dust circulation in the air.
- In the presence of power surges, the device will not fail.
Infrared radiation is useful for several diseases:
- disorders in the work of the nervous system;
- bronchial asthma or respiratory diseases;
- pain in muscles and joints.
It is important to consult with your doctor before using the thermal device, self-treatment and careless use of the device can lead to negative consequences.
Cons of infrared heaters
The disadvantages of using it include the following:
- You can not be under the influence of rays for a long time, it is unsafe.
- The cost of such units is quite high, but the price justifies itself.
- If you do not install a thermostat, then electricity bills will be higher.
- In rooms with low ceilings, such a device is not recommended for use.
- If the house has varnished furniture, then there is a possibility of damage to it under the influence of rays, since heat primarily heats objects, not air.
- During operation, the thermal device emits red light, for some people this is an inconvenience at night.
- Intelligent control of heaters is low.
- In order for the device to serve for a long time, it should be protected from bumps and falls, as some elements are sensitive to mechanical damage.
- Do not dry clothes with this device, as it is unsafe.
How to choose an infrared heater
The optimal power is calculated by the formula: 1 kW of power per 10 square meters of space. The type of heating can be direct and indirect.
In the first case, it is best to install an additional ventilation system, since the combustion products are released back into the air. Indirect view implies an additional system for removing combustion products.
To understand which heater is better, it is necessary to pay attention to three important parameters:
- Wavelength. The temperature of the generated heat directly depends on this parameter.
- Device power. With power indicators in the range of 300-2000 W, the equipment is used in domestic conditions (apartment, house, office). In this case, the mains voltage of 220 volts will be enough.
- Installation method. Infrared heaters are installed on the wall, ceiling or on the floor. Devices mounted in the ceiling, according to their characteristics, are more efficient in operation.
- Do not install such equipment in rooms where explosive materials are located.
- When purchasing a floor heater, simply put it on the floor, point it in the direction that needs heating, and turn it on.
Ceiling or wall-mounted version must first be installed using the fixing system, which is always included.
Installation and connection of the unit must be carried out by qualified specialists.
- If there are power surges, you need to additionally purchase a stabilizer.
- It is necessary to periodically wipe the disconnected device with a damp cloth, removing dust.
- Do not touch a hot appliance.
- Avoid mechanical damage.
The warranty period is usually several years, during which time the warranty card must be kept. The coupon specifies the date of purchase, the brand of goods and the store’s seal is required (note that the coupon is invalid without a seal).
If during the service period any damage to the device occurs due to the fault of the manufacturer, then the repair is carried out at the expense of the seller. It is important that the unit is operated in accordance with the conditions specified in the instructions.
All heaters must have a certificate of compliance with the state standard, a certificate from the fire service and a sanitary and epidemiological conclusion that confirms safety.
The warranty does not apply in the following cases:
- Defects arose in the event of force majeure (power surges, accidents or natural disasters).
- The operating conditions specified in the manual are violated.
- If the buyer independently or with the help of third parties repaired the product.
- Failure to comply with safety standards.
- Making changes to the design of the product by the buyer.
- Damage due to improper transportation of goods by the buyer. If the delivery is carried out by the manufacturer or seller, then the guarantee is valid.
- Use of equipment at high humidity (more than 90%), high voltage (more than 10% of the installed) and high temperature.
Most often, the heating element and the thermostat fail. Repair of these parts is usually not carried out, they are immediately replaced.
If the thermostat burns out, you can close the contacts and install another regulator with a power of 2 kW. Do not use a soldering iron because the solder will melt at high temperatures.
The wires in this case must be connected in a screw way. Other parts of the device usually work without interruption and do not break during the entire service life.
Do not try to repair the device yourself, if you are not versed in technology, entrust this matter to professional craftsmen, call the service department and call a specialist at home.
Manufacturers of infrared heaters
Ballu produces a whole line of different thermal devices. The leader of sales are ceiling models. The company’s website contains a catalog of products, where you can see the entire range of products.
The heating equipment is easy to use and safe. All elements of infrared heaters are made of high quality materials.
In the Russian Federation, production is carried out in the city of Izhevsk. Zilon brand heaters are also produced here.
The company takes care of the environment, constantly reduces the power consumption of manufactured equipment. The company’s products have a modern design and are designed using innovative technologies.
The product line is constantly expanding. Infrared heaters of this company are presented in various versions: quartz, carbon and ceramic.
The heaters of the French company combine infrared and convective heating, warm air is soft and does not dry the surrounding atmosphere.
Noirot equipment is the benchmark for the quality of thermal engineering, and the devices also have excellent energy efficiency. On the company’s website you can see all the models in detail.
Heaters of this brand are produced in Turkey, export deliveries are made to many countries of the world in large volumes, so the cost is low. The company’s website offers not only heaters, but also many other equipment. The range is constantly growing.
These heaters come from Sweden. The company has high requirements for product quality, so that all products meet international standards. The company’s website presents the entire range of thermal equipment.
Russian ceiling heaters are manufactured using high technology. On the site you can get acquainted with all types of equipment.