the principle of operation of the built-in or desktop dishwasher



Most of the auto­mat­ic dish­wash­ers cur­rent­ly offered in stores are mod­els built into the kitchen set with front-load­ing dish­es.

This tech­nique makes the life of a house­wife as easy as pos­si­ble.

I put dirty cut­lery into the machine, pressed the but­ton — and after a while the spoons, forks and plates are clean again.

In order for the dish­wash­er to work prop­er­ly and wash dish­es thor­ough­ly, the machine needs water, regen­er­at­ing salt and deter­gents. In this case, the water jets must have a set tem­per­a­ture, the salt com­po­si­tion must meet the require­ments for NaCl puri­ty, and the liq­uids and wash­ing tablets must be suit­able for a par­tic­u­lar mod­el.

Each dish­wash­er unit is respon­si­ble for its part of the dish­wash­ing process. If the heat­ing ele­ment does not heat the water suf­fi­cient­ly, the pump does not com­plete­ly pump it, and the ion exchang­er or fil­ters become clogged, the dish­es will remain dirty.

General principle of the dishwasher

The prin­ci­ple of its work is quite sim­ple.

To begin with, the device draws water, then, using a heat­ing ele­ment, heats it up to the required tem­per­a­ture. Heat­ed water is mixed with deter­gent and the result­ing solu­tion is fed into the spray units locat­ed at the top and bot­tom of the machine cham­ber. Sprayers, rotat­ing, spray jets of soapy solu­tion in dif­fer­ent direc­tions and with dif­fer­ent pres­sure.

This allows even treat­ment of all sur­faces, which sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduces the like­li­hood of streaks. Next, the soapy water enters the drainage pipe, and through it the water is dis­charged to the out­side, but with­out deter­gent residue. Thus, the machine cleans itself on its own with­out requir­ing human inter­ven­tion.


Preparing dishes and loading

There are rules that clear­ly pre­scribe how to load dish­es and cut­lery in the dish­wash­er:

  • Before load­ing the dish­es into the machine, it is nec­es­sary to clean them from food residues:
  • All items must be sta­ble;
  • More dirty kitchen uten­sils are placed in the bot­tom bas­ket of the dish­wash­er;
  • All con­tain­ers are placed upside down so that water does not accu­mu­late in them;
  • Tall and nar­row con­tain­ers must not be installed in cor­ners, in a too inclined posi­tion;
  • You can load dish­es into the machine only once;
  • Load­ing should not exceed half the vol­ume of the dish­wash­er;
  • Do not load forks, spoons and knives into the machine;
  • Do not put on the top plate of the machine: pots, fry­ing pans with­out han­dles, cast iron pans;
  • Close the car door tight­ly, so that there are no gaps.

Noth­ing should block the rota­tion of the rock­ers that spray the water. Oth­er­wise, dish­wash­ing effi­cien­cy will be reduced.

If nec­es­sary, you can place more dish­es in the machine, but do not for­get that their weight should be uni­form. Prop­er load­ing of the dish­wash­er ensures high-qual­i­ty and long-last­ing dish­wash­ing.

It also saves time and deter­gents. On the oth­er hand, if the dish­es are loaded uneven­ly, they may not be washed well due to uneven fric­tion. This is espe­cial­ly true for pans and oth­er items that have a smooth sur­face.

If the dish­wash­er is loaded incor­rect­ly, you can end up with dish­es with dried dirt and food residues. If you have not prop­er­ly pre­pared the dish­es, they will quick­ly become clogged with dirt and will not be washed well.


Stages, wash cycles

Let’s see what stages the dish­es go through in the wash­ing process.

In fact, there are few of them:

  • Pre-soak. Jets of water knock down the rem­nants of food from the dish­es, it is pre­pared for fur­ther pro­cess­ing;
  • The wash­ing up. The dish­es are washed with jets of hot water with a spe­cial agent dis­solved in it.
  • Rins­ing. Use hot water to remove deter­gent residue from dish­es. Depend­ing on the algo­rithm of the con­trol pro­gram or infor­ma­tion received from the sen­sors, the water may change sev­er­al times dur­ing rins­ing.
  • Dry­ing. Mois­ture is removed from the sur­face of the dish­es. The result is a com­plete­ly washed and dried dish, which can only be put in its usu­al place.


Extra rinse mode

The rinse mode in the dish­wash­er is pro­vid­ed in each of the pro­grams used. For some of them, the water is heat­ed, oth­ers use cold water.

How­ev­er, some­times the stan­dard rinse cycle is not enough. In wash cycles, this func­tion is pro­vid­ed to rinse out the deter­gent and make the dish­es shine. But if the con­tain­ers have been heav­i­ly soiled, food par­ti­cles may remain on them even after sev­er­al rins­es.

If you only wash your dish­es once in the evening, they can sit in the dish­wash­er for hours. Dur­ing this time, the rem­nants of food on plates, pans and pots will dry out. Dur­ing wash­ing, they will be very dif­fi­cult to remove and dirt par­ti­cles may remain on the dish­es.

To avoid this, use the pre-rinse mode. It is rec­om­mend­ed to turn it on before using the main cycle or even 2–3 times dur­ing the day so that food residues do not dry out on the dish­es until you ful­ly load the dish­wash­er. When you turn on the rinse cycle in the dish­wash­er, no deter­gent is used.


Drying class

Mod­ern dish­wash­ers, in addi­tion to the “ener­gy class” and “wash­ing class”, have such a para­me­ter as the “dry­ing class”. It is deter­mined by con­duct­ing test mea­sure­ments. Depend­ing on how much water is left on the dish­es, the machine is assigned class A, B or C.

Dry­ing class A or B is a per­fect­ly accept­able option. Class A means that the man­u­fac­tur­er promis­es us per­fect­ly dry dish­es. Class­es B and C allow some mois­ture (drops) on the dish­es.

Modes and additional functions of the dishwasher

The oper­a­tion of the dish­wash­er will not be dif­fi­cult, the basic prin­ci­ples and rules of use, as well as the modes of the dish­wash­er, will facil­i­tate the work of any house­wife.

The dish­wash­er has two main modes of oper­a­tion — these are:

  • quick;
  • inten­sive.

With the help of the fast mode, the most gen­tle wash­ing of dish­es is per­formed, which does not require addi­tion­al rins­ing or dry­ing.

Inten­sive wash mode is designed for a more thor­ough, thor­ough wash­ing of soiled dish­es.

In mod­els that have a delay start timer, after set­ting it, you can set the dish­wash­er to run for a cer­tain time so that it will wash the dish­es at the right time.

There are also addi­tion­al fea­tures such as: self-clean­ing and leak­age pro­tec­tion.

Self-clean­ing is an option­al fea­ture that will save you water and ener­gy, as well as sig­nif­i­cant­ly reduce salt con­sump­tion. This func­tion is very con­ve­nient if you use the dish­wash­er at home and do not want to change the salt fre­quent­ly.

The Leak Pro­tec­tion fea­ture is also an option­al fea­ture. When it is turned on, water in the event of a leak will not flow to your appli­ances. This will pre­vent seri­ous dam­age in case of flood­ing.

PMM wash completion time

When the dish­wash­er fin­ish­es the wash cycle, the machine beeps and shuts down.

On the con­trol pan­el there are con­ve­nient indi­ca­tors for the end of the pro­gram, using the set­tings you can change the vol­ume of the sound sig­nal or turn off the noti­fi­ca­tion of the end of work.

This is espe­cial­ly true when load­ing dish­es at night.

After the machine has come to a com­plete stop, press the on/off but­ton of the machine.

It is rec­om­mend­ed to wait about 15 min­utes before tak­ing out the dish­es, because after dry­ing they can be very hot, and some types of dish­es become brit­tle.


Beam on the floor

Most com­mer­cial­ly avail­able dish­wash­ers are built-in. They are installed in the kitchen set, and the front pan­el of the device is closed with a fur­ni­ture facade.

The con­trols are locat­ed on the top edge of the door, so they are not vis­i­ble unless you open it. Man­u­fac­tur­ers try to make the equip­ment work as qui­et­ly as pos­si­ble, so it is far from always pos­si­ble to imme­di­ate­ly deter­mine whether the wash­ing cycle has end­ed or not.

So that users do not have to lis­ten or open the door, some mod­els of dish­wash­ers are equipped with a beam on the floor func­tion.

The “beam on the floor” in the dish­wash­er is a light pro­jec­tion that helps to mon­i­tor the progress of the machine. It can work in sev­er­al ways.

Some­times the light point near the dish­wash­er door appears only at the end of the pro­gram. In oth­er mod­els, on the con­trary, it goes out after the device com­pletes its work. There is anoth­er option — chang­ing the col­or of the beam from red to green. And the most dif­fi­cult one is pro­ject­ing onto the floor not just a point of light, but the time remain­ing until the end of the pro­gram.

The “Beam on the floor” func­tion elim­i­nates the need for an audi­ble sig­nal when the dish­wash­er is fin­ished. This option will be appre­ci­at­ed by fam­i­lies with small chil­dren, as well as those who usu­al­ly turn on the device at night.


Prevention and cleaning of PMM

In order to avoid ques­tions about how to clean the dish­wash­er, it is nec­es­sary, as far as pos­si­ble, to “clean” the inside of the appli­ance after each use.

Sim­ple Tips:

  1. If you use the appli­ance every day, and not on hol­i­days, you can avoid the dry­ing of grease and food residues.
  2. Before wash­ing dish­es in the dish­wash­er, they must be rinsed with hot run­ning water to wash off food residues and some of the fat.
  3. Be sure to wipe the door and gas­kets with a damp cloth and deter­gent after each use. If dirt gets into them, an unpleas­ant smell of rot can devel­op over time.
  4. Peri­od­i­cal­ly clean the appli­ance with vine­gar. To do this, pour two glass­es of liq­uid into the bot­tom of the dish­wash­er and turn on a quick wash with­out dish­es.
  5. To com­bat the smell, you can fill the bot­tom of the appli­ance with a glass of bak­ing soda and use the machine as usu­al.
  6. After each use, leave the machine door open to dry inside.

PMM service

First of all, the sur­faces of the wash­ing cham­ber require care. They are made of stain­less steel, which impos­es cer­tain restric­tions on the clean­ing agents used.

Do not use prod­ucts con­tain­ing chlo­rine and abra­sives. They can ruin the sur­face, leave indeli­ble stains and deep scratch­es.

As a rule, the sur­faces are wiped with a soft cloth light­ly damp­ened with a deter­gent solu­tion. In most cas­es, man­u­al clean­ing of the wash cham­ber is absolute­ly unnec­es­sary. It’s all about the dish­wash­ing deter­gents used. If qual­i­ty prod­ucts are used, and the regen­er­at­ing salt and rinse aid dis­pensers are set cor­rect­ly, the inte­ri­or sur­faces will be cleaned along with the dish­es.

The instruc­tion man­u­al describes how to prop­er­ly adjust the amount of salt and rinse aid. It is impor­tant to under­stand here that the hard­ness of tap water and oth­er para­me­ters vary depend­ing on the region, so dos­ing is often select­ed exper­i­men­tal­ly: after the com­ple­tion of the wash­ing cycle, the con­di­tion of the inter­nal sur­faces is assessed, and, if nec­es­sary, the lev­el of salt and rinse aid con­sump­tion is adjust­ed.

With the cor­rect set­tings, the inte­ri­or sur­faces of the dish­wash­er are free of limescale, streaks and oth­er con­t­a­m­i­nants. They stay per­fect­ly dry and clean.


In espe­cial­ly “neglect­ed” cas­es, the walls of the cham­ber are wiped with a soft cloth dipped in table vine­gar. Or, a con­tain­er (100–150 ml) with vine­gar is placed in one of the bas­kets of an emp­ty dish­wash­er and a wash­ing cycle is start­ed, after which the walls of the cham­ber are washed with dish­wash­ing deter­gent.

Spe­cial atten­tion should be paid to the seal­ing gum of the car door. Limescale accu­mu­lates on them, inter­fer­ing with a nor­mal fit.

Such con­t­a­m­i­nants are removed with a sponge or cloth dipped in table vine­gar.

To pre­vent cor­ro­sion on the bas­kets for dish­es made of enam­elled met­al rods and oth­er ele­ments of the dish­wash­er, it is rec­om­mend­ed to wipe them dry after each use.

To pre­vent con­den­sa­tion inside the cham­ber, leave the door open until the dish­wash­er has com­plete­ly cooled down.

In the case of using a non-embed­ded (free­stand­ing, desk­top) dish­wash­er mod­el, its exter­nal sur­faces will also require the user’s atten­tion. They are cleaned with a slight­ly damp sponge or cloth soaked in a clean­ing solu­tion.

Like any oth­er appli­ance, a dish­wash­er needs prop­er and reg­u­lar main­te­nance. The main­te­nance and care pro­ce­dures are sim­ple and do not take much time, but if you ignore them, the dish­wash­er will turn into an inte­ri­or item and will no longer be able to per­form its direct func­tions.

Useful video

The video shows how the dish­wash­er works from the inside and what process­es take place in it while wash­ing dish­es:






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